Vaccines used to prevent poliomyelitis, commonly known as polio, is called Polio Vaccines. There are two types of polio vaccines. One is given by injection and uses inactivated poliovirus and another is given by mouth and uses weakened poliovirus. These two vaccines have eliminated polio from most of the world as recommended by World Health Organization. In 2015, there were 74 cases of polio in comparison of and estimated 350,000 cases in 1988. Although mild redness or pain may occur at the site of injection, the inactivated polio vaccines are very safe. Inactivated polio vaccine was the first polio vaccine, developed by Jonas Salk, and came into use in 1955. Albert Sabin developed the oral polio vaccine which came into commercial use in 1961. These vaccines are the most effective and safe medicines and they are on the World Health Organization’s list of essential medicines needed in a health system. As of 2014, the wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0.25 USD per dose for oral form and in between 25 and 50 USD for the inactivated form in the United States.

Jonas Edward Salk was an American medical researcher and virologist popular for discovering and developing polio vaccines. He tested his polio vaccine in many ways like on monkeys. He successfully vaccinated thousands of monkeys. He also used those monkeys as hosts to grow the virus so that he could make his vaccine. He found people who used to have polio but recovered and tested his vaccine by giving it to those people. Next, he tried it on volunteers who had never had polio before. Through all of the testing, no one got infected, in fact, they all began to produce antibodies, with people infected previously produced more antibodies. The Vaccine was "declared to be safe and effective." by Dr. Thomas Francis Jr. of the University of Michigan on April 12, 1955.

Albert Bruce Sabin was best known for developing the oral polio vaccine. The sabin vaccine contains weakened forms of strains of polio viruses. Salk’s vaccine didn’t prevent the initial intestinal infection. The vaccine developed by Sabin is easy to give and its effect lasts longer. In late 1954, Sabin, at the Chillicothe Ohio Reformatory, first tested his live attenuated oral vaccine. The oral vaccine broke the chain of transmission of the virus as sabin had discovered that the poliovirus multiplied and attack in the intestine. It also allowed for the possibility that polio might be eradicated. Sabin also investigated possible links between viruses and cancer and developed vaccines against other viral diseases.